Map of Kapsali & Hora ca. 1696
Copyright (2010) James Victor Prineas
This 300 year old map shows the two bays at Kapsali and the kastro at Hora. Note there is only one single building drawn on the bayshore.
It should be remembered that in the seventeenth century more than one million inhabitants of island and costal towns on the Mediterranean (and as far north as Iceland!) were attacked, enslaved or murdered by pirates. Most of these pirates operated from the "Babary Coast" in north Africa (Algiers, Tunis etc.) and the slaves were mostly sold at the markets there. The population of Kythera was doubtless at the mercy of such pirate raids, the most famous of which was the destruction of Paliohora.